November 7, 2023
Written by

What is the impact of political inequality on political participation?

Inequality in political participation and influence has strongly increased in recent decades. To what extent are these two phenomena related? And what can we do to reverse this trend?

This paper reviews a growing literature on three aspects of political inequality :

  • The increasing concentration of both political and charitable donations
  • The growing gap in descriptive representation (the mapping between the characteristics of the population and those of the elected representatives)
  • The persistent lack of substantive representation (the extent to which the preferences of different groups are taken into account)

Julia Cagé examines how these aspects relate to the recent widening of electoral inequalities, and explores new policies and forms of participation to address political inequalities, as well as new avenues for research.



  • Julia Cagé, Science Po Paris